Best Time Management Game titles

If you are looking for top time operations games, curious about come towards the right place. This article will highlight the most popular game titles in this genre. You will discover that one could find a video game that suits your needs with out breaking the bank. This article has been kept up to date to magnify new information for those of you just who are looking to find the best time management games for the purpose of the LAPTOP OR COMPUTER. It’s time to get in existence and play these great online games!

A game best suited the time operations genre is certainly Sally’s Health spa. This video game requires players to run a spa and manage all their resources properly. This game includes mini-games, which give players a little selection in their mission. Players must keep consumers happy and work to generate a online business. Even though they may not be considering business, Sally’s Spa is good for people who like playing games that provide teamwork, source management, and problem-solving.

A second game best suited this category is a Adelanto Three set. It consists of saving a lost expedition in the middle of an activity about dinosaurs and cave people. Another game that fits the category is Big Farmville farm by Good Online games. It calls for sowing seed and looking after animals on a farm, and it can keep players entertained all day. The balancing of time and resources keeps you occupied for hours. This kind of game has its own features which is sure to satisfy even the most discerning gamer.

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Important Features of On-line Data Areas

Online data rooms provide several positive aspects over traditional data areas. Aside from giving the same features, they also assure maximum protection. A digital data bedroom uses extremely secure encryption to protect data files from cyber-terrorist and other threats. These kinds of advantages produce online data rooms a desirable choice for companies and organizations of most sizes. Posted below are some of the most essential features of online data rooms. All of them are important when working with hypersensitive data. You should know of them before choosing an online info room.

The prices plans are essential. There is a wide range of data space pricing programs. The more expensive ones deliver more features, but be aware that they will also cost you more. Decide what features you really need and whether you are able to live without one. Also, make perfectly sure that your chosen data room prepare is flexible and allows you to upgrade if the needs modification eventually. By weighing the pros and cons of online info rooms, you can choose a service which is best for you and funds.

Files must be properly named. Renaming files helps to ensure profound results for others to understand what they are. To prevent confusion, choose standardized data file naming promotions. Text-based docs should be kept as Ebooks. Financial files should be published as Stand out files. These allows users to modify economic variables without having to worry about a copy being leaked. A due diligence from a caterer should help you sort and organize your documents in the info room. You will be able download or perhaps print the documents.

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US Congress Revives the $369 Billion Climate Change Bill

U.S. Senators Joe Manchin and Chuck Schumer unveiled a long-awaited reconciliation bill to invest $369 billion to fight climate change and advance clean energy programs.

The new U.S. bill is dubbed the “Inflation Reduction Act of 2022″. It would be the biggest and most aggressive investment ever taken by Congress for climate.

The bill is 725-page long with major provisions to cut down emissions of the U.S. by about 40% by 2030.

The deal came two weeks after Sen. Manchin said he would not support a bill with clean energy and tax provisions while inflation remains high.

But it appears that he kept the door open by reviving the climate bill once more after a year of pained negotiations.

If passed and signed into law, it would be a major victory for President Joe Biden’s climate agenda that he ran on in 2020. That agenda was attacked by the Supreme Court last June.

Taken as a whole, the bill would be a great win for clean energy tax credits as the centerpiece. The deal extends the current renewable credits. Beyond 2025, they will be technology neutral and be based on GHG emissions reductions.

Senate Finance Chair Ron Wyden said that:

“For the first time, the tax code is going to reward emissions reductions… and encourage the development of new clean energy technologies as soon as they come online.”

Lawmakers, environmentalists, and climate advocates who had been hammering Manchin for rejecting the climate measures were ecstatic at the surprise announcement.

The Inflation Reduction Act of 2022: Key Climate Provisions

The Act includes five key climate provisions with the following funding details:

Cutting Consumer Energy Costs. The bill will provide a range of incentives to consumers to relieve the high costs of energy and decrease utility bills. These include buying energy efficient appliances, clean vehicles, and rooftop solar. The specific funding includes:

$9 billion in consumer home energy rebate programs
$4,000 consumer tax credit to buy used-clean vehicles
Up to $7,500 tax credit to buy new clean vehicles
$1 billion grant program to make housing more energy efficient

Both tax credits would only be available to lower and middle income consumers.

Energy Security and Domestic Manufacturing. The climate change bill will support manufacturing cleaner energy products through historic investments. That includes ~$60 billion across the full supply chain of on-shore clean energy manufacturing and transportation technologies.

$30 billion production tax credits for manufacturing of solar panels, wind turbines, batteries, and critical minerals processing
$10 billion tax credit to build clean technology manufacturing facilities
Up to $20 billion in loans (with $2 billion in grants) to build new clean vehicle manufacturing facilities
$2 billion for National Labs to boost breakthrough energy research

These manufacturing incentives will help ease inflation by bringing down the cost of clean energy and clean vehicles. It will also relieve supply chain bottlenecks.

Decarbonizing the Economy.

Climate investments will cut emissions across all sectors of the economy. The primary sectors include electricity production, transportation, industrial manufacturing, buildings, and agriculture.

$30 billion tax credits (for states and electric utilities) for clean sources of electricity and energy storage
$6 billion grants and tax credits to reduce emissions from the largest industrial emitters (e.g. chemical, steel and cement plants)
$9 billion for the Fed government to buy American-made clean technologies
$27 billion clean energy technology accelerator to support deployment of technologies to reduce emissions

The climate change bill also includes unspecified funding for a program to reduce methane emissions from the production and distribution of natural gas. Methane emissions are more than 80x as potent as CO2 in warming the atmosphere.

Environmental Justice Investments. The climate deal includes ~$60 billion in environmental justice investments into disadvantaged communities. It will address the unequal effects of pollution on low-income communities and communities of color.

Agriculture, Forests, and Rural Communities. The funding will ensure that rural communities are at the forefront of climate solutions. Investments that will be made include:

Over $20 billion to support climate-smart agriculture practices
$5 billion in grants to support forests, forest conservation and urban tree planting
$2.6 billion in grants to conserve and restore coastal habitats
Tax credits and grants to support domestic production of biofuels

Huge Win for Clean Energy Transition

Obviously, the climate change bill puts clean energy at the forefront – from manufacturing clean energy products to buying clean vehicles and supporting clean electricity sources.

President Joe Biden said the tax credits and investments for clean energy projects in the deal will create thousands of new jobs and help lower energy costs. And so he urged the Senate to move on the legislation the soonest time possible.

President Biden has pledged to curb the country’s emissions by 50% to 52% by 2030 and reach net zero emissions by 2050. But without the bill, that goal won’t be possible as per the analysis of Rhodium Group. The president remarked that:

“This is the action the American people have been waiting for… This addresses the problems of today – high healthcare costs and overall inflation – as well as investments in our energy security for the future.”

The Senate is set to vote on the proposed climate change bill next week. Then it will go to the Democrat-dominant House of Representatives.

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DeepMarkit Partners with Flowcarbon to Host the ReFine Our Future Event in Paris

DeepMarkit announced that it participated as a partner-level participant alongside Flowcarbon at the “ReFine Our Future: An Immersive Flowcarbon Event”.

The event was held on July 20, 2022 on the Loho Rooftop in Paris, France, concurrently with the 5th Annual Ethereum Community Conference that took place from July 19-21, 2022.

DeepMarkit attended to share information about its platform and foster the ongoing development of the strategic relationship between the company and Flowcarbon.

The ReFi Event featured a gallery of carbon credit NFTs that have been minted via its platform. The event pulled together many experts and an interactive experience that highlighted novel ways to drive capital to carbon projects.

Flowcarbon believes that working together with DeepMarkit in the Web3 x carbon space will strengthen and grow the entire industry. The firm is using blockchain technology to address some of the systemic challenges in the voluntary carbon market.

These include accessibility and transparency in the spot market for carbon markets, facilitating early and efficient access to capital for project developers, and creating tokens backed by carbon credits to promote liquidity.

DeepMarkit looks forward to exploring more opportunities with Flowcarbon and growing their relationship as the both participants aim to help reduce the global carbon footprint via their corporate missions.


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Integrity Council Unveils Core Carbon Principles for Consultation

The Integrity Council for the Voluntary Carbon Market set out the draft of its Core Carbon Principles for consultation to govern real, verifiable, and high-integrity carbon credits.

The ICVCM is an independent governance body that was recently-formed from the Taskforce on Scaling Voluntary Carbon Markets (TSVCM).

TSVCM is one of the leading organizations governing the carbon markets. It seeks to establish a global benchmark for carbon credits as efforts at beefing-up standards in carbon offsetting grow.

And one big part of its efforts is what the ICVCM seeks to establish – the Core Carbon Principles (CCPs) for high-quality carbon credits. The Council released its draft for public consultation.

Integrity Council’s Core Carbon Principles for Carbon Credits

The Core Carbon Principles (CCPs) will set new threshold standards for high-quality carbon credits. They will also provide guidance on how to apply the CCPs and define which carbon-crediting programs and methods are CCP-eligible.

The Council’s CCPs are a set of criteria ensuring that carbon credits bought to offset emissions have a real, verifiable climate impact. And that’s based on solid science, not speculations.

For carbon credits to be of high integrity, the ICVCM suggests that all carbon purchases (reductions or removals) meet CCP’s 10 key criteria:

Mitigation activity information
No double counting
Program governance
Robust independent 3rd party validation & verification
Robust quantification of emissions reductions & removals
Sustainable development impact and safeguards
Transition towards net-zero emissions

Moreover, mitigation efforts must avoid locking in levels of emissions or practices that are not in line with achieving the net zero emissions by 2050.

As per Carney, the UN Special Envoy on Climate Action and Finance:

“By providing a global threshold standard for credible, transparent, high-integrity carbon credits the Integrity Council’s new Core Carbon Principles will support the net zero transitions of companies… and the reduction of global emissions while providing much-needed financing to projects in emerging and developing economies and to Indigenous Peoples.”

Emissions reduction efforts must also be guided by: “clear guidance, tools and compliance procedures”.

Plus, all carbon credit programs must also be validated and verified by third-party. They also have to be robustly quantified according to: “conservative approaches, completeness and sound scientific methods.”

The Core Carbon Principles draft also suggested that all carbon crediting programs should be available with comprehensive and transparent information. Such information should be accessible to non-specialized audiences and come in electronic format.

They must also have effective governance systems to achieve:

accountability, and
overall quality of carbon credits.

Lastly, they should identify, record and track mitigation activities on a registry.

All these CCP criteria will ensure projects are compatible with sustainable development goals.

Public Consultation for the CCPs

VCM experts hope that growing the carbon markets will hit two birds with one stone in driving a sustainable future:

By providing additional emissions mitigation to speed up the pathway to 1.5C
By channeling resources to where investments are critical for climate adaptation and resilience.

Integrity Council Chair Annette Nazareth noted that the VCM exists to hasten a just transition to 1.5C. She also said that:

“In designing an effective market that can deliver genuine climate impact at speed and scale, we need to start with integrity. It is a precondition for a transparent, deep, liquid, standardized and scalable market that efficiently channels capital to where it is most urgently needed… To make this work, we need everyone from across the VCM to come to the table, share knowledge and expertise, and collaborate to co-create the CCPs…”

Indeed, dealing with the integrity of carbon credits fast is crucial as the debates around ESG and greenwashing continue to swirl.

The public consultation for CCPs will be open to all. It has to attract interest from key stakeholder groups operating in the VCM. These include finance, business, NGOs, scientists, governments, and members of the public.

The British Standards Institute (BSI) will oversee the consultation.

The consultation will seek views on several questions on the scope of the Council’s proposed core carbon principles. These include two crucial questions:

Should the VCM levy a share of proceeds to development countries most vulnerable to climate change to meet the costs of adaptation?
Should host countries have to authorize voluntary carbon credits bought in their jurisdiction?

Through the consultation, the ICVCM said the CCPs will pave the way for developing the spot and futures markets for carbon credits.

The Integrity Council further states that via CCPs, carbon markets will be liquid, scalable, and create transparent price signals. All these result in better price risk management.

The 60-day consultation will be until 27 September 2022, expecting submissions from all corners of the market. Click here to access the draft report

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Climate Maps of Transformed United States (Under 5 Scenarios)

Rising temperatures are causing drastic effects on the planet’s living conditions while increasing sea levels continue to consume coastlines.

Indeed, heat wave by heat wave, scientists can now see the powerful impact of climate change behind unusual high temperatures in recent years.

Climate change is not just propaganda anymore but is a real thing that causes a catastrophic chain of events. And so, this article will reveal how new climate maps show a transformed United States.

The US climate maps are the results of the analyzed data from the Rhodium Group. They show how climate change will transform the way people in the US will live by mid-century.

The never-before-seen climate data unveil how heat and humidity will push the South and Gulf Coast to be almost uninhabitable. You’ll also wonder how the change will show that the upper Midwest will be a more ideal place to live.

The new climate maps provide one of the most complete views of what the climate future looks like in the United States.

They’ll also show how counties will rank across the climate criteria. These include heat, sea level rise, farm crop yields, large fires, and economic damages.

The Changing Human Climate “Niche”

Recent research shows that the most livable climate in North America will shift northward while large fires will continue to get worse across the country.

A team of researchers coined a term to refer to the regions where temperature has been most fit for humans to live in over the past 6 millennia. They call it the human climate “niche”.

In the US, that niche covers the heart of America, from the Atlantic seaboard through northern Texas and Nebraska, and the California coast.

But as temperature continues to rise, the niche can move northward by 2070. Under even a moderate carbon emissions scenario (known as RCP 4.5), much of the Southeast becomes less suitable. And the niche shifts toward the Midwest by 2070.

In the case of extreme warming (RCP 8.5), the niche moves toward Canada. This shift leaves much of the lower half of the US too hot or dry as to what humans used to live before.

Both of those future climate scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) suggest immense change in where Americans live and grow their food right now.

RCP stands for Representative Concentration Pathway referring to future emissions scenarios.

Projecting future climate change involves assessing a number of various uncertainties.

Some of them relate to the climate system. For example, how sensitive the climate might be to increased concentrations of GHG in the atmosphere.

Other factors involve the amount of gas emitted using energy system models to simulate varying scenarios of future emissions. The chart illustrates the four common RCPs used by scientists to predict future emissions with 3 warming GHGs.

Greenhouse gas emissions in RCP scenarios compared to the range of projections in published scenarios – 90th percentile in dark grey, 98th percentile in light grey. Charts show CO2 (left), methane (middle) and nitrous oxide (right).

Heat is one of the biggest factors that change the niche of human habitability. Scientists expect that under the RCP 8.5 scenario, between 2040 and 2060 extreme temperatures will be common in the South and Southwest.

The future climate map below shows how Phoenix’ Maricopa county in the US will experience temperatures above 95 degrees for 6 months.

Concept defined: RCP 8.5 is an extreme warming scenario that also means high-emissions scenario that’s often referred to as “business as usual”. It suggests that’s a likely outcome if the world doesn’t make concerted efforts to reduce GHG emissions. It’s the worst-case scenario in a no-climate policy world.

New Climate Maps: The “Wet Bulb” Temperatures

While heat is a key climate factor, alone it won’t determine the future of Americans. The new climate maps that show a transformed United States include also humidity alongside heat.

Taken together, they form the “wet bulb” temperatures that will disrupt the daily existence of Americans.

Concept defined: Wet bulb temperature is the lowest temperature to which air cools down by the evaporation of water into the air at a constant pressure. It accounts for both heat and humidity in projecting temperature.

Though the dangers of wet bulb temperature is still rare today, it can be three decades from now. That’s assuming that people continue to dump more planet-warming gases.

Sample scenarios of new climate maps below show how the United States will be transformed under moderate (RCP 4.5) and high emissions (RCP 8.5). The projections include scenarios under five different phenomena.

Extreme Heat and Humidity: 2040-2060

Once heat meets excessive humidity, the body can no longer cool itself by sweating. That is the case with wet bulb temperatures.

In perspective, it’s when 82 degrees brings southern Alabama to its hottest temperature. So, working outdoors and playing school games can be both dangerous under this climate.

And as wet bulb temperatures rise even more, so is the risk of heat strokes that may lead to deaths.

In both climate maps below, heat and humidity in Missouri (A) will feel like Louisiana today. Meanwhile, southwestern Arizona (B) that’s usually not that humid will witness rising wet bulb temperatures.

High emissions scenario
Moderate emissions scenario

What most likely cause such a big change are many factors that react to high temperatures such as wind speed, sun angle, and cloud cover.

Large Wildfires in the US: 2040-2060

Wildfires are also another major evidence of changing climate conditions in the US. The chance that huge wildfires (fires that burn ~12,000 acres) affecting the country will increase even more with heat and worsening drought.

The last two years, 2020 and 2021, saw record-breaking wildfires engulfing the West, Northwest, and the Rocky Mountains. Even parts of the Southeast and Georgia are experiencing large wildfires that weren’t seen before.

In fact, researchers estimate that by 2050, the northern Great Basin (A) which is not a dense forested region, will be the focal point of large wildfires.

High emissions scenario

That region where big Nevada and Oregon counties will experience wet and dry weather cycles. This can turn the grasslands into a fuel field for fires that can spread through 10,000 acres in a day with strong winds.

Sea Level Rise: 2040-2060

When it comes to sea levels, they’re also rising rapidly. As per the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the rate at which they rise has more than doubled from 2006 to 2015.

NOAA also predicts that sea levels will likely rise by at least 1 foot (0.3 m) above the levels seen in 2000 by the start of the next century. This means high tides in the coming decades will submerge even more properties along the coastlines.

Though this will affect a small land part of the country, it will impact a large share of the population. As illustrated in the new climate map, some of the populous cities in the US will be affected.

High emissions scenario

About 50 million people are living in America’s metro areas. And that include Miami (A), New York (B), and Boston (C). They’re all found in counties where higher share of properties will be below high tide.

So if you or someone you know happen to live in those areas, pay attention to the rising sea levels.

Farm Crop Yields in the US: 2040-2060

Apart from wild forests and oceans, agricultural lands will also be severely harmed by the climate change.

The rate of desertification grew a lot, turning plenty of croplands into dry lands. With more warming, it will be even more difficult to grow food.

Corn and soy are the most dominant crops in the US and are vital for livestock feed and other staple foods. As such, they have high economic value.

Because they’re taking most of the croplands in the country, corn and soy production is often used to predict how rising temperatures impact farming.

As growing both crops is more sensitive to heat than drought, their production rate will go down for each degree of warming.

In a sense, North Dakota (A in the map) can expect to have higher yields for both crops. That’s because the place will experience warmer temperatures by midcentury. But parts of Texas and Oklahoma (B) may witness declining yields by ~70% under high emissions scenario.

If you’re farming in the southern regions in the map (B), your production will face challenges if the projection holds true.

Climate Change Economic Damages: 2040-2060

Lastly, climate-driven changes will also take a financial toll on the US economy. The researchers determined the economic damages as a share of the counties’ GDP.

The dragging effects of climate change to the American economy are due to several factors. These include the following:

rising energy costs,
lower labor productivity,
poor crop yields, and
increasing crime

Overall, under a high emissions scenario, the US economy will lose between about 1% – 4% of GDP each year by the end of the century. The effects, however, will not be the same across the country as shown in the map.

High emissions scenario

For example, populous areas with expensive real estate like Houston (A) and Miami (B), will see economic losses in billions. That corresponds to several percentage points loss in their GDP.

What will cause such a big financial loss are rising sea levels, storms, and even deaths from extreme heat, according to the researchers.

More notable is the fact that climate change damages will be worse in poorer and rural areas. Take the case of the Gulf Country, Florida (C), for instance. They may lose even half of their economy due to those climate-related disasters.

Are Those Future Scenarios Unavoidable?

Without a doubt, those climate maps that show a transformed United States from today look scary.

Oceans swallowing more coastal lands are unimaginable while deaths due to heat strokes are more unthinkable.

Not to mention the fierceness of large wildfires claiming vast acres of land and even lives. And the idea of low food supply may prompt you to think of hoarding food today. These compounding climate change calamities seem to be like the end of world.

But the good news is that humans still have a chance to avoid them with suitable climate policies and prompt actions.

Organizations and individuals alike are looking for ways to prevent those disastrous scenarios.

People develop initiatives that avoid greenhouse gas emissions.

Companies innovate technologies that remove carbon and other GHG already dumped in the air.

Nations take measures that cut down their emissions.

Investors fund projects that support all those actions above.

If you are interested in how you can join and help address climate change and reverse its catastrophic effects, there are plenty of means to do so.

But if you’re looking for a way that can both benefit the planet and your wallet, you can start by exploring the carbon market.

You can visit our education page for comprehensive guidelines all about carbon market. It’s best to begin with this beginner’s guide explaining the voluntary carbon market.

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Understanding The Carbon Cycle and How it Changes the Climate

Carbon is the foundation of all life on Earth. Humans are made of carbon. We eat carbon and almost everything is built on carbon.

Carbon is the 4th most abundant element in the entire universe. It’s also plenty in our atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2).

It helps regulate the planet’s temperature but any changes that put it into the atmosphere cause temperatures to rise. And so, it turns out to be the most serious concern we face today – climate change.

This article explains what happens during the carbon cycle and how it causes global warming. It will also talk about the carbon cycle in relation to the water cycle and how they both affect the earth’s temperature.

How Carbon Cycle Takes Place

Most of Earth’s carbon, which is around 65,500 billion metric tons, is found in rocks. The rest of it is in the soil, plants, fossil fuels, oceans, and the atmosphere. They’re the reservoirs or sinks through which carbon cycles.

Carbon cycle is the exchange through which carbon flows between each of those sinks. Any change in the cycle that lets carbon flows out of one sink creates more carbon in the other sinks.

This fast carbon cycle shows the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes while red are human contributions in gigatons of carbon per year. White numbers are stored carbon. (Source: U.S. DOE, Biological and Environmental Research Information System.)

In the long run, the carbon cycle seems to keep the balance that avoids carbon from entering the atmosphere or from being stored in rocks. This balance helps keep the planet’s temperature stable.

But for some time scales, parts of the carbon cycle may amplify temperature changes that can happen for shorter time periods. This instance often occurs over tens to a hundred thousand years.

In the same manner, over very long time periods, millions to tens of millions of years, geological changes can also cause carbon to seep from the Earth’s core. This also changes the planet’s temperature from extreme hot (Cretaceous era) to extra cold (Pleistocene era).

Today, carbon escapes the sinks and reaches the atmosphere when organisms die, wildfires breakout, fossil fuels get burned, and so on.

And humans have a big role in the carbon cycle through their activities such as too much logging, burning of fossil fuels, excessive fishing, and land development. As a result, the amount of CO2 in the air has been rising so fast.

In fact, it’s already greater today than at any time in the last 800,000 years.

In the case of the ocean, the carbon cycle takes place between the ocean’s surface waters and the atmosphere.

The carbon cycle happens either in slow pace or fast pace.

The slow carbon cycle involves a series of chemical reactions and tectonic activity that moves carbon between different reservoirs. The process also takes place between 100 to 200 million years to complete.

On the contrary, the fast carbon cycle occurs in a lifespan and involves the movement of carbon through various life forms.

In other words, this carbon cycle moves via the biosphere. About 1,000 – 100,000 million metric tons of carbon move through this cycle each year.

For the purposes of this article, we’ll focus on this short-term, fast carbon cycle. It only takes days, months, or years for carbon to cycle through this process.

The fast (biological) carbon cycle

Plants and phytoplankton (very tiny organisms in the ocean) are the main components of the fast or biological carbon cycle. Photosynthesis is the process that forms the foundation of this carbon cycle.

During photosynthesis, plants absorb CO2 and sunlight to form sugar and oxygen they need to grow.

Next, animals and humans eat the plants or plankton, breaking down the plant sugar to get energy. During food consumption, CO2 is released into the atmosphere due to cell respiration.

Then plants and plankton die and decay, and get eaten by bacteria. Or fires can also consume the plants and release the carbon back into the atmosphere.

Changes in the Carbon Cycle

In the past years, the carbon cycle has changed in response to climate change.

Levels of CO2 in the air corresponded closely with the Earth’s temperature over the past 800,000 years. Though the temperature changes were partly due to variations in Earth’s orbit, the increased temperatures released CO2 into the air.

That, in turn, caused the planet to get warmer. That was the case tens of thousands of years ago. But today, changes in the carbon cycle are happening because of humans.

Human activities disturb the natural carbon cycle significantly. By burning coal, oil, and natural gas, we quicken the carbon cycle process, releasing large amounts of carbon into the air each year.

That carbon took millions of years to escape their sinks. As such, we enable the carbon to move from the slow cycle to the fast cycle.

The carbon cycle and the water cycle

Energy from the sun sets in motion both the carbon and water cycles. Recall that sunlight, CO2 and water are inputs during photosynthesis.

But, changes to the carbon cycle as mentioned above affects the water cycle. With rising global warming due to increasing levels of CO2, the result is super-charging both cycles.

For instance, we’ve seen greater evaporation in regions that created heavier rainfall in some areas and deeper droughts in others. This phenomena shows that the greater amount of carbon in the air is altering the water cycle.

Meanwhile, the water cycle has been altered by the greater amount of carbon in the air. Likewise, plant growth is enhanced by higher carbon levels in the atmosphere.

This, in turn, contributes to more water vapor to the atmosphere during transpiration. It then leads to heavier downpours during rain events.

Hence, both water and carbon are cycling faster and differently than before as the climate changes.

The carbon cycle and the oceans

More CO2 concentrations and warming temperatures are causing changes in the natural carbon cycle. And much of the carbon emitted by humans has been absorbed by the oceans, causing them to become less alkaline.

This helps to slow global warming by removing some CO2 from the atmosphere. But as warmer ocean waters can hold less carbon, it will leave more in the atmosphere.

About 30% of the CO2 that humans dumped into the air has diffused into the ocean via direct chemical exchange.

Dissolving CO2 in the ocean creates carbonic acid that makes the water more acidic or less alkaline. Since 1750, the pH of the ocean’s surface has dropped by 0.1, a 30% change in acidity.

Warmer oceans, as a product of the greenhouse effect, can decrease the abundance of phytoplankton. These living organisms grow better in cool, nutrient-rich waters. As such, this can limit the ocean’s ability to take carbon from the air through the fast carbon cycle.

On the other hand, CO2 is essential for plant and phytoplankton growth. An increase in CO2 also increases their growth by fertilizing a few species that take CO2 from the water.

Unfortunately, most species are not like that as they’re harmed more by increasing CO2 levels in the ocean.

Feedbacks within and between cycles

The burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and land use changes have changed the carbon budget. But it’s only the first or primary stage in the entire cycle story.

Changes in one part of the carbon and water cycles can lead to unexpected outcomes. These changes are the secondary ones which are also known as climate feedbacks.

Scientists worry that climate feedbacks can further worsen global warming due to CO2 alone.

For instance, snow and ice are melting in the Northern Hemisphere. Warming temperatures are also melting more parts of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during hot summer days. While snow cover on land is also declining in many parts of the world.

As snow and ice cover decreases these areas absorb more sunlight instead of reflecting it. As a result, more energy gets absorbed that causes more warming. Thus, a positive feedback loop takes place.

The same holds true in the case of water vapor, which is the largest feedback factor. As temperature goes up, more water vapor evaporates into the atmosphere. This causes temperatures to climb up even more.

In effect, with more water vapor in the atmosphere we see more clouds. Clouds can both cool the planet (by reflecting sunlight) and warm it (by absorbing heat radiation from the surface). Though clouds have a cooling effect, that can change in a warmer environment.

So, everything with water seems to be closely related to carbon and how it cycles. If CO2 levels change, it goes the same with water and both cycles also change.

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Saudi Prince Reveals Design of the City of the Future in NEOM

Saudi Crown Prince announced The Line’s design, a zero carbon city that he plans to build at NEOM which costs between $100 to $200 billion.

Revealed in 2017, NEOM is Prince Mohammed’s plan to turn a desert the size of Belgium into a high-tech and sustainable megacity in Saudi Arabia’s northwestern corner.

It will be a linear metropolis with a ski resort and an industrial city that partially floats on water.

NEOM is one of the largest and most complex urban construction programs in the world. It spans 26,500-square-km (10,230-square-mile) on the Red Sea with several zones.

NEOM ’s business zone costing about $500 billion is for diversifying the economy of the top oil exporter. The kingdom’s sovereign wealth fund, the Public Investment Fund, is the cornerstone investor in NEOM.

The key purpose of building the region is to house the 10 million people that will overcrowd Riyadh. By 2030, the crown prince aims for 1.5 million people to live in “The Line”. That population will be 9 million by 2045.

The Line: A Zero-Carbon City in NEOM

The Line is a zero-carbon city within NEOM. It’s only 200 meters wide, but 170 kilometers long, and 500 meters above sea level.

Prince Mohammed first unveiled plans for the city in January last year. He said about it:

“The city’s vertically layered communities will challenge the traditional flat, horizontal cities… The designs of The Line embody how urban communities will be in the future in an environment free from roads, cars, and emissions.”

The Line will vertically layer homes, offices, public parks, and schools within a mirrored facade stretching over 170 km. It will look like this:

A new exhibit open to the public in Jeddah displays potential designs for “modules” of the twin buildings. They’ll be built in stages by global architecture firms. Popular names include LA-based Morphosis and UK-based Archigram.

The prince said last year that the project would cost $100 to $200 billion. There are no updated figures provided so far.

The environmental solution to urban living

The Line offers a new approach to urban design that’s based on the concept of Zero Gravity Urbanism. It refers to the idea of layering city functions in a vertical way while giving people the possibility of moving seamlessly in three dimensions – up, down, or across.

The urban concept is unique from just the tall buildings we know today. As it layers various facilities, one can move fast and with less effort to reach destinations within minutes.

With no roads, cars or emissions, the zero-carbon city will run on 100% renewable energy while 95% of land will be preserved for nature. Unlike traditional cities, people’s health is a priority over transportation and infrastructure.

As The Line will have a footprint of only 34 square kilometers, it has a reduced emissions. Its design creates never-before-seen efficiencies in cities.

Plus, the city’s ideal climate all-year-round will ensure that residents can enjoy the surrounding nature. Tenants will also have access to all facilities within a 5-minute walk, a high-speed rail, with an end-to-end transit of 20 minutes.

The city’s zero-car environment is part of a 100% sustainable transport system – with zero pollution and zero wait time. As such, low commutes will give residents more time for leisure.

And the community will live close to, and in harmony with, nature, 95% of which is untouched by urbanization. The vertical garden city means people are always only a few minutes from nature.

In order to change business as usual, the city’s design is digitized and the construction is industrialized.

Overall, The Line’s zero carbon city offers its residents the following features:

Work-life balance
Legacy-free urbanism
Enhanced livability
Leisure and sports
Vertical living
Next-gen architecture
Walkable communities

The announcement of The Line is a continuation of NEOM’s progress in its development. Its final construction will be done in 2025.

NEOM will begin engaging large potential investors by the end of this year. In fact, Saudi officials are talking to different companies around the world to invest and work with NEOM.

With The Line and NEOM at stake, the prince said that he’d be happy if he’ll achieve even just 50% of what he aims with this urban project.

The post Saudi Prince Reveals Design of the City of the Future in NEOM appeared first on Carbon Credits.

Dutch Farmers Dilemma: Sort Out Emissions or Sell The Farm

Dutch farmers protested as lawmakers voted on proposals to reduce nitrogen emissions, a plan that will likely force them to cut their livestock herds or exit the farming business.

The Netherlands is Europe’s biggest meat exporter from its intensive livestock farming industry. But the Dutch government decided to cut nitrogen and ammonia by 50% by 2030, with a €25 billion budget for it.

Ministers call the proposal an “unavoidable transition” that aims to improve air, land and water quality. They warn that farmers need to adapt or face the prospect of closing their businesses.

The honest message, however, is that not all farmers can continue their business if profits are also cut. And so, Dutch farmers are revolting.

They’re angered by the government’s environmental policy to reduce 30% in livestock production. They’re blocking food distribution centers, roads, and ministers’ driveways.

Livestock Farming and Nitrogen Emissions in the Netherlands

The country has the EU’s highest density of livestock. It has ~20 million livestock, including cattle, pigs, and chickens but it only has a 17 million population.

The intensive livestock production pollutes the environment. Manure and urine combine to release ammonia. They then run-off from fields as fertilizer to streams and lakes, harming life in these bodies of water.

In other words, manure poses a harmful waste product in the Netherlands instead of being a vital fertilizer.

Also, the success in agriculture has been emitting harmful nitrogen compounds that include nitrogen oxide (N2O).

In response, the government introduced a trading or offsetting scheme in 2015. It permitted projects releasing nitrogen in exchange for future nitrogen reductions.

But in 2019, the Council of State court ruled that the scheme was not valid and that nitrogen reductions have to come first. The Dutch government believes that something has to be done with ammonia, nitrogen, and its warming emissions.

In effect, there’s a plan to reduce nitrogen emissions by 50% by 2030. And this has a backing of €25 (US$25.4) billion budget.

Part of the plan is cutting livestock production by 30%. Plus, over €500 million is brought forward for the regional government to buy out farmers this year and next.

Since the Netherlands is the region’s largest nitrogen emitter, the plans to cut N2O emissions must go through. So, the Dutch government created two official documents.

One is a map showing the areas where N2O reductions should happen by about 12% to 95%. The other one is a statement intended to help farmers.

But farmers consider both measures damaging to their business, particularly pointing out to the reduction numbers. They think the plans are a huge blow to their farming business and the entire sector.

In fact, many of them invested a lot in new equipment to cut down their herds’ environmental impact.

Farmers’ Grassroots Proposals Ignored

The protest that Dutch farmers initiated shakes the entire nation. There’s a big rally in Stroe’s central village and police cars get attacked. Food retailers lost tens of millions in sales.

And farmers declared a free state of boerenlanden (farmer land) in some villages.

One major reason for the farmers uprising is the fact that their proposals were not heard by the national government.

According to Wytse Sonnema, a spokesman for the farmers’ association the LTO, they proposed a 40% reduction by 2030.

But their proposal was fully ignored and lost over the government’s 70% reduction targets. And farms in EU-designated Natura 2000 protected zones face the hardest restrictions.

Sonnema said that:

“Famers in the Netherlands are deeply concerned and angry about the nitrogen policy that was presented by the national government on June 10th… According to the government these should all add up to a country-level reduction of 50% in 2030… which is simply unfeasible, and will have disastrous effects on not just agriculture, but on the economic, social and cultural viability of rural Netherlands.”

One group of organic farmers proposed its own 10-point plan called Green Farmers Plan. It’s intended to get farmers out of the stand-off of the nitrogen dossier yet the government ignored it.

The food team at WWF Netherlands commented on this concern. Natasja Oerlemans remarked that:

“I speak to many farmers who want to change [livestock production]: the question is how. The how is not very clear in current government communication but I think there are many opportunities for farmers to change.”

Across the country, people hang Dutch flags upside down along roads and bridges as support for the farmers. And the world is also starting to take notice.

Not Just a Dutch Issue

Nitrogen emissions is not just a Dutch issue. It’s a problem all over Europe, such as the Po Valley in Italy, Brittany in France, and parts of Denmark, Ireland and the UK.

The current Dutch farmers’ rally hinges on EU standards setting maximum safe nitrogen emissions levels. This applies all throughout the bloc.

For instance, Belgium, which has the 3rd-highest EU livestock concentration, is paying big attention to the Netherlands.

The government of the Dutch-speaking region, Flanders, also aims to reduce numbers of pigs 30% by 2030. It’s offering farmers €150 euros per pig and €855 euros per sow to buy them out.

Germany also has its new regulations on nitrogen pollution. France could also follow.

With the Dutch government already having some outlines, it’s now up to provincial administrators to develop and implement their nitrogen emission reductions plan.

The post Dutch Farmers Dilemma: Sort Out Emissions or Sell The Farm appeared first on Carbon Credits.